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KIR4.1: another misleading expectation in multiple sclerosis?

Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca, Hans Lassmann

The Lancet Neurology, Volume 13, Issue 8, August 2014, Pages 753–755

The identification of a biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis is needed. Several biomarkers have been proposed (eg, immunological and clinical markers) but have had disappointing results. Pathological changes in the immunological response in patients with multiple sclerosis affect not only T cells, but also B cells, and increase immunoglobulin synthesis in the CSF, oligoclonal bands, and complement deposition; therefore, CNS antigens have been regarded as potential autoimmune targets. Such research has been fuelled by the discovery of a pathogenic antibody against the aquaporin-4 channel in neuromyelitis optica, which has revolutionised the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.

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About the Editors

  • Prof Timothy Vartanian

    Timothy Vartanian, Professor at the Brain and Mind Research Institute and the Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell...
  • Dr Claire S. Riley

    Claire S. Riley, MD is an assistant attending neurologist and assistant professor of neurology in the Neurological Institute, Columbia University,...
  • Dr Rebecca Farber

    Rebecca Farber, MD is an attending neurologist and assistant professor of neurology at the Neurological Institute, Columbia University, in New...

This online Resource Centre has been made possible by a donation from EMD Serono, Inc., a business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.

Note that EMD Serono, Inc., has no editorial control or influence over the content of this Resource Centre. The Resource Centre and all content therein are subject to an independent editorial review.

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supports promising translational research projects by academic researchers to improve understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) for the ultimate benefit of patients.  For full information and application details, please click here

Journal Editor's choice

Recommended by Prof. Brenda Banwell

Causes of death among persons with multiple sclerosis

Gary R. Cutter, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Amber R. Salter, et al.

Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, September 2015, Vol 4 Issue 5