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KIR4.1: another misleading expectation in multiple sclerosis?
Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca, Hans Lassmann
The Lancet Neurology, Volume 13, Issue 8, August 2014, Pages 753–755
The identification of a biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis is needed. Several biomarkers have been proposed (eg, immunological and clinical markers) but have had disappointing results. Pathological changes in the immunological response in patients with multiple sclerosis affect not only T cells, but also B cells, and increase immunoglobulin synthesis in the CSF, oligoclonal bands, and complement deposition; therefore, CNS antigens have been regarded as potential autoimmune targets. Such research has been fuelled by the discovery of a pathogenic antibody against the aquaporin-4 channel in neuromyelitis optica, which has revolutionised the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.