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IL-10 producing B cells partially restore E2-mediated protection against EAE in PD-L1 deficient mice

Jun Zhang, Gil Benedek, Sheetal Bodhankar, Andrew Lapato, Arthur A. Vandenbark, Halina Offner

Journal of Neuroimmunology, Volume 285, 15 August 2015, Pages 129-136


  • Association of mtDNA G15257A and G15812A variations and MS was assessed.
  • No association was found between mtDNA G15257A variation and MS.
  • No association was found between mtDNA G15812A variation and MS.


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system for which no definitive therapy has yet been developed. The etiology remains uncertain, but there is evidence of genetic susceptibility to the disease, including contributions frommitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations to the pathogenesis of MS. G15257A and G15812A are variations of the mtDNA tRNA(Thr) gene in MS sufferers of different populations. The present study tested the hypothesis of an association of the G15257A and G15812A variations of the mtDNA tRNA(Thr) gene to the susceptibility to MS in an Iranian population.

Material and Methods

Two hundred subjects included 100 MS patients and 100 unrelated healthy controls. DNA was extracted from blood samples by means of the salting-out method. The mtDNA fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was done by digestion of the PCR products with Acc I and Rsa I restriction endonuclease enzymes for mtDNA G15257A and G15812A variations, respectively. Afterwards, the restriction products were visualized byelectrophoresis using 3% Agarose gel and safe DNA gel staining. To confirm the accuracy of genotyping procedure, sequencing of the mtDNA fragments was carried out in randomly selected samples.


The mtDNA G15257A variation was found in one of the 100 patients and one of the 100 controls (P=0.637) (odds ratio [OR] = 1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0-79.2). The mtDNA G15812A variation was not found in any of the 100 patients or 100 controls (0%) (P=1) (OR = 1, 95% CI = 0.0-79.2).


The evidence from the present study is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the G15257A and G15812A variations in the mtDNA tRNA(Thr) gene are associated with susceptibility to MS in the selected populations.

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About the Editors

  • Prof Timothy Vartanian

    Timothy Vartanian, Professor at the Brain and Mind Research Institute and the Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell...
  • Dr Claire S. Riley

    Claire S. Riley, MD is an assistant attending neurologist and assistant professor of neurology in the Neurological Institute, Columbia University,...
  • Dr Rebecca Farber

    Rebecca Farber, MD is an attending neurologist and assistant professor of neurology at the Neurological Institute, Columbia University, in New...

This online Resource Centre has been made possible by a donation from EMD Serono, Inc., a business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.

Note that EMD Serono, Inc., has no editorial control or influence over the content of this Resource Centre. The Resource Centre and all content therein are subject to an independent editorial review.

The Grant for Multiple Sclerosis Innovation
supports promising translational research projects by academic researchers to improve understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) for the ultimate benefit of patients.  For full information and application details, please click here

Journal Editor's choice

Recommended by Prof. Brenda Banwell

Causes of death among persons with multiple sclerosis

Gary R. Cutter, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Amber R. Salter, et al.

Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, September 2015, Vol 4 Issue 5