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Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS): Canadian contribution to the international validation project
Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Volume 362, 15 March 2016, Pages 147–152
Given the high prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in people with multiple sclerosis (PWMS) and the lack of availability of specialized neuropsychological services in most MS Clinics, there is a need for a brief cognitive monitoring tool that can be easily administered by MS clinic staff.
We aimed to establish the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) as a feasible cognitive monitoring tool and provide Canadian data toward the international validation effort. Secondary considerations were to determine if BICAMS correlates with self-reported cognition and predicted vocational status.
57 PWMS were matched to 51 healthy controls (age, sex, education). Participants completed the BICAMS battery which includes the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and the learning trials from the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Depression, self-reported cognition, and fatigue were assessed. Participants were re-tested 15.6 (SD 2.0) days later.
With impairment defined as “one or more abnormal tests,” 57.9% of MS sample was cognitively impaired. Participants were more likely to be impaired on the BVMT-R (43.9%). On the SDMT and CVLT-II, 28.1% and 26.3% of MS participants were impaired. Sensitivity and specificity were highest for the SDMT. The BICAMS was reliable over time (r value range from 0.69 for BVMT-R to 0.87 for SDMT) with the SDMT being most robust. There was no relationship between BICAMS and subjective cognition. The BVMT-R reliably predicted employment.
The BICAMS detected cognitive impairment to a comparable degree to more comprehensive neuropsychological batteries and is a valid measure of cognition in MS. Reliability of components varies, suggesting care be taken when interpreting serial testing results. The BICAMS is a feasible cognitive assessment tool in Canadians and yields comparable results to other cultures.
- BICAMS is a valid tool for identifying cognitive impairment in MS in Canada.
- BICAMS is reliable but practice effects should be considered with serial testing.
- Results in this Canadian study are comparable to results in other countries.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, BICAMS, Neuropsychology, Cognition, Validity, Reliability.
Cognitive dysfunction is present in up to 70% of people with MS . The strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) that accompanies cognitive impairment in people with MS (PWMS) , , , , and  makes it essential to identify the impairment early so that steps can be taken to alleviate some of the associated suffering. Given that specialized neuropsychological services to address this issue are not available in most settings due to resource issues or prohibitive cost, there is a necessity for screening tools that can be used in MS Clinics or physicians' offices to identify those with cognitive impairment. Given the subtleties of the cognitive deficits in some instances, they are not easily identified in standard clinic or physician visits . Thus, the development and implementation of cognitive monitoring tools is gaining widespread interest in the literature given the clear clinical need , , and .
In response to this need, the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) initiative was undertaken . The goal was to bring together a panel of experts in the cognitive aspects of MS to recommend a brief, cognitive assessment for MS that can be used in centers with staff members who may not have neuropsychological training. The tests that were recommended for the BICAMS battery were chosen by the panel on the basis of their psychometric qualities (reliability, validity, and sensitivity), international application, ease of administration, feasibility in the specified context, and acceptability to patients . Particular heed was given to the need for tests that addressed the areas of cognitive deficit that are typically observed in MS. The BICAMS can be administered in 15 min.
Evidence suggests that the primary cognitive deficit in MS may be an impaired ability to process information as quickly as healthy individuals , , , , , , , and . Longitudinal studies suggest that information processing speed may be a good predictor of long-term cognitive impairment . Thus, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)  was chosen for the BICAMS battery given that it has proven to be a psychometrically sound measure that is sensitive to these deficits and is both easily and rapidly administered. It is more palatable to people with MS  than the other commonly used measure of information processing speed in MS (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test). The SDMT is already included in lengthier batteries designed for MS , , and  and equivalent alternate forms are available . The oral version of the task was selected to ensure that reduced fine motor skills (often associated with MS) does not confound performance.
Memory deficits are also common in MS. These difficulties are primarily during the encoding or learning phase given that retrieval typically reaches normal limits with adequate encoding , , and . The California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II)  is a standard measure of verbal learning and memory in clinical neuropsychology. Consistent with the expected encoding deficits, the CVLT-II total learning score was found to be sensitive to the memory deficits in MS and was able to discriminate MS patients from healthy controls . Indeed, even when only the first two of the five learning trials were used, verbal memory problems in MS were accurately identified . The third and final BICAMS measure is the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) . This is again a well-established measure of visual learning and memory in MS, has been demonstrated to discriminate well between those with MS and healthy controls  and demonstrates good test–retest reliability when used for repeated assessments . As with the CVLT-II, only the learning trials are administered given the good psychometric properties  and the demonstrated association with neuroimaging variables measuring lesion volume and atrophy , , and .
International standards for validation have been established  and efforts are being made to validate BICAMS across a number of different countries. A Persian translation was developed and validated in Iran  on the entire MACFIMS (Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS) battery (of which BICAMS is a subset of tests) with 158 PWMS with either relapsing–remitting or secondary progressive course matched to 90 healthy controls. All tests were able to discriminate between groups, with ROC analyses demonstrating that the SDMT had the best sensitivity and specificity (area under the curve, AUC = 0.90). The sensitivity of the CVLT-II and the BVMT-R were essentially equivalent (AUC = 0.86 and 0.83, respectively). A similar validation study on a Czech translation  was completed with 369 individuals with all subtypes of MS compared to 134 healthy controls. Cognitive impairment was defined as impaired (greater than 1.5 SD from the mean) performance on “one or more of the three BICAMS tests.” This yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 86%, respectively. Further, the authors investigated the relationship between BICAMS performance and self-reported vocational status. The likelihood of vocational disability increased as the number of BICAMS tests yielding impairment increased. A Hungarian translation also demonstrated group differences between MS and control groups at baseline and follow-up with the exception of the CVLT-II at baseline. Cognitive impairment was documented in 52.3% of their sample using the “one or more abnormal tests” criterion. The Hungarian group documented negative correlations between MS participants' subjective fatigue scores and their cognitive performance on the BICAMS. An Italian version was developed and regression-based norms have been established . The Italian BICAMS identified impairment in 23.9% of the MS sample and yielded a sensitivity of 58.2% and a specificity of 86.7% when impairment was defined with Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery . Finally, an Irish version of the BICAMS  yielded impairment on one or more tests in 57% of their sample. The MS and control groups differed on all three BICAMS measures when examining mean raw scores. There was no relationship documented between cognitive impairment and fatigue, depression, or anxiety. Similar studies in other countries are ongoing and results are pending.
In summary, there is a need for a short and easily-administered battery of tests that can identify cognitive impairment in an MS clinic setting. Identification of cognitive impairment will help clinic staff identify those in need of cognitive rehabilitation. The BICAMS battery was developed to be suitable for administration by non-specialized personnel and to possess sound psychometric qualities (i.e. reliability, validity). International collaboration is being fostered so that BICAMS may serve as a viable outcome measure of cognition in clinical trials. International standards for validation have been developed and were applied here . The objectives of the current prospective study were to first, establish BICAMS as a feasible cognitive monitoring tool in the Ottawa MS clinic and second, to provide Canadian data toward the international validation effort to foster global collaboration. We hypothesized that PWMS would perform worse than healthy controls (HC) on BICAMS (criterion-related validity) and that BICAMS would demonstrate high test–retest reliability. Secondary considerations were to determine if BICAMS correlated with self-reported cognition and if BICAMS performance predicts vocational status.
2.1. Study population
57 English-speaking individuals with clinically definite MS were matched to 51 English-speaking healthy controls (HC) on age, sex and education. Participants with MS were recruited from the Ottawa Hospital MS Clinic, whereas healthy controls were recruited from the community, family/friends of MS participants (no first degree relatives), and through website advertisements. Participants were between the ages of 18 and 59 and fluent in English. They were excluded if they had any neurological/medical/psychiatric conditions (besides MS and depression) that might impede cognition including prior head trauma or a learning disability. Other exclusion criteria included history of seizures, uncorrected visual acuity problems, corticosteroid or immunosuppressive treatment within 2 months of enrolment, current MS exacerbation and current use of drugs (legal or illegal) which may have an impact on cognitive function.
The study was approved by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board. Participants were compensated for their parking costs, but did not receive any incentives for participation. After undergoing appropriate informed consent procedures and a demographic interview, participants underwent the BICAMS battery, which included the oral SDMT (Rao version) as well as the learning trials from the CVLT-II and the BVMT-R (published versions). Tests were administered in that same fixed order. Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) . This is a freely available tool that is quick to administer and has been validated in MS  and . Self-reported cognition was assessed with the Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire (MSNQ – informant and self forms), a well validated measure of subjective cognitive deficits that often accompany MS . Fatigue was measured with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale .
Participants were then asked to return for a follow-up session one to three weeks later (mean interval 15.6 (2.0) days; range 9 to 32 days; all numbers between parentheses are standard deviations) to allow for test–retest reliability to be determined. This is the gold standard separation interval when the question is test reliability, controlling for maturation effects. All tests administered in the baseline session were repeated in the same manner and in the same order; however, alternate forms were employed (CVLT-II Alternate form; BVMT-R Form 2; SDMT Form 2) to reduce practice effects from prior exposure to the stimuli.
Before analyses were conducted, the data set was examined and cleaned for possible outlier scores. There was 16.7% of missing values on questionnaire data only (no missing BICAMS data). Data were found to be missing completely at random (Little's test, χ2(1479) = 1357.6, p = .99) and so were imputed using the expectation maximization (EM) method. This process was completed according to accepted and conservative methods for data handling .
After evaluating the data for homogeneity of variance, an analysis of co-variance was performed to determine if group differences were statistically significant at the alpha level of .05 while accounting for any differences that might be attributable to depression and fatigue. Test–retest reliability, and the relationship between subjective and objective cognition, were evaluated with Pearson correlational analyses. Paired t-tests were administered to calculate practice effects.
In determining impairment we calculated z scores based on the performance of our control sample. Participants were considered impaired if their score was 1.5 standard deviations below the mean of the control group.
After classifying participants to either a cognitively impaired or cognitively intact group using the criterion of impairment on at least two BICAMS tasks, we employed Receiver-Operating-Characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the classification accuracy of each BICAMS subtest.
Logistic regression  was employed to determine if BICAMS performance predicted self-reported vocational status. A stepwise technique was utilized with age, gender, education, depression score, and EDSS score entered as predictors on the first step, and the BICAMS variables entered as predictors on the second step.
3.1. Demographic characteristics
Mean age was 45.44 (9.93) for the MS group and 41.92 (10.78) for controls, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Mean years of education was 15.44 (2.68) for the MS group and 16.31 (2.11) for controls, again with no difference between groups. Chi-square analyses demonstrated that the groups were also matched on the proportion of males/females (16/41 for MS; 7/44 for controls). In the MS group the proportion of MS subtypes was reflective of a typical clinic population (44 RRMS (77.2%), 9 SPMS (15.8%), and 4 PPMS (7.0%). Mean EDSS score was 2.70 (1.85) with a range of 0 to 7. Average disease duration was 10.11 (7.72) years.
The MS group reported higher levels of depressed affect and fatigue compared to healthy controls (see Table 1). Group differences in the BICAMS variables were examined using ANCOVA (see Table 2). At both baseline and follow-up, the SDMT and the BVMT-R yielded significant group differences with the MS group performing more poorly at both time points. However, no group differences were noted in CVLT-II performance at either time point after accounting for the effects of depression and fatigue.
|MS||HC||F||Partial Eta Squared||p value|
PHQ-9 — Patient Health Questionnaire-9; mFIS — Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; MSNQ-S — Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire — Self form; MSNQ-I — Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire-Informant form. Numbers between parentheses indicate standard deviation.
|MS||HC||F||Partial Eta Squared||p value|
SDMT — Symbol Digit Modalities Test; CVLT-II — California Verbal Learning Test-II; BVMT-R — Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Numbers between parentheses denotes standard deviation. Covariates were depression (PHQ-9) and fatigue (mFIS).
Using the previously reported criteria of impairment defined by “one or more abnormal tests”  and  we determined that 33 of 57 (57.9%) of our sample of PWMS were cognitively impaired at baseline. Specifically, 28.1%, 19.3% and 10.53% of the MS sample were identified as impaired by one, two, and three tests, respectively at baseline. At follow-up, 28.1%, 8.77%, and 15.8% were impaired by one, two, and three tests, respectively. Our MS participants were more likely to be impaired on the BVMT-R than the other BICAMS subtests with 43.9% meeting criteria for impairment. On the SDMT and CVLT-II, 28.1% and 26.3% of MS participants were impaired, respectively.
3.3. Does BICAMS predict impairment?
We evaluated the classification accuracy of each BICAMS subtest using ROC analyses. Using a criteria for global impairment of − 1.5 SD or below on at least 2 BICAMS tests, the SDMT correctly classified 95.4% of participants and demonstrated the most robust performance for the detection of cognitive dysfunction (Fig. 1). The CVLT-II and BVMT-R correctly classified 81.5% and 81.0% of participants, respectively. Please see Table 3 for suggested cut-off values for each test and their respective sensitivity and specificity.
SDMT = Symbol Digit Modalities Test; CVLT-II = California Verbal Learning Test-II; BVMT-r = Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised; AUC = Area under the curve.
The test–retest reliability data is presented in Table 4. All three tests demonstrated reliability over time with the SDMT showing the strongest correlation. Strength of correlations was modest to strong (range from 0.69 for BVMT-R to 0.87 for SDMT). As others have demonstrated, modest practice effects were noted on some tests . In particular, the MS group improved on the SDMT and on the BVMT-R between sessions despite the use of alternate forms.
|Baseline||Follow-up||Test–retest Paired statistics|
|Pearson's r||p value||Mean||SD||Mean||SD||t||Cohen's d||p value|
|SDMT||0.87||< 0.001||49.65||10.78||53.54||12.50||− 4.83||0.33||< 0.001|
|BVMT-R||0.68||< 0.001||24.60||6.54||27.39||6.26||− 4.14||0.44||< 0.001|
SDMT = Symbol Digit Modalities Test; CVLT-II = California Verbal Learning Test-II; BVMT-R = Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised.
3.5. Relationship between objective and subjective cognition
There was no statistically significant relationship between the BICAMS variables and subjective cognition (as reported by either the participants or their informants) at either baseline or follow-up. Nonetheless, both the self and informant forms of the MSNQ correlated with depression at both baseline (self: r = 0.44, p < 0.001; informant: r = 0.32, p = 0.001) and follow-up (self: r = 0.56, p < 0.001; informant: r = 0.22, p < 0.05). Of note is that both self and informant MSNQ findings did discriminate between the MS and HC groups at both baseline and follow-up (see Table 1).
3.6. BICAMS and vocational status
After accounting for demographic variables and depression in a stepwise logistic regression only two variables were retained in the regression model: One variable from the first block (Expanded Disability Status Scale) and one BICAMS variable from the second block (BVMT-R). The full model significantly predicted employment status (omnibus chi-square = 15.35, df = 2, p < .001). The model accounted for between 23.6% and 32.8% of the variance in employment status, with 86.8% of the employed MS participants successfully predicted. However, only 52.6% of predictions for the unemployed MS participants were accurate. Table 5 gives coefficients and the Wald statistic and associated degrees of freedom and probability values for each of the retained predictor variables. This shows that only BVMT-R reliably predicted employment to a significant degree. The value of the coefficients reveal that an increase of one raw score point on the BVMT-R is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of unemployment by a factor of 0.86.
|Variables in the equation||B||Standard||Wald||df||Significance||Exp(B) Error|
A panel of experts designed the BICAMS as an assessment tool that would identify the typical cognitive deficits in PWMS, allow for monitoring of cognition over time, and could be administered by health care professionals without specific experience in neuropsychological testing. Efforts are being made across the globe to validate the BICAMS across different cultures and languages in order to establish it as a psychometrically sound tool that is internationally applicable. In addition to its clinical utility, it will also be helpful in large-scale international clinical trials as a common outcome measure of cognitive functioning. The current study aimed to evaluate the BICAMS in an English-speaking Canadian sample and establish whether or not it validly discriminated between PWMS and healthy controls, as well as whether or not it demonstrated adequate test–retest reliability. Secondary objectives were to determine if the BICAMS correlated with self-reported cognition and if it predicted vocational status.
The BICAMS tasks were able to collectively identify cognitive impairment in 57.9% of our sample of PWMS using the criteria of impairment defined by one or more abnormal tests. This is comparable to the 58%, 57%, and 52.3% in the Czech, Irish and Hungarian studies, respectively , , and . It is also comparable to the degree of impairment documented by the more comprehensive MACFIMS battery (55%)  and is consistent with rates of cognitive impairment in MS that are consistently reported throughout the literature . The relatively equivalent numbers across cultures certainly supports the international applicability of the BICAMS.
Of the three BICAMS tasks, only the SDMT and the BVMT-R were able to discriminate between PWMS and healthy controls after accounting for depression and fatigue. This was true at both baseline and follow-up. The CVLT-II did not discriminate between groups at either time point. It is notable that this was the measure that demonstrated the least ability to discriminate between groups in the Hungarian study as well . It is possible that the lack of discrimination between groups on the verbal measure may have been related to the fact that our sample was slightly more educated than samples in the other studies (i.e. 15.44 (2.68) years as compared to 14 or less in the other studies). Indeed, education level correlated with CVLT-II score across our entire sample (r = 0.20, p < .05), but did not correlate significantly with either SDMT or BVMT-R performance. In our sample, the PWMS were more likely to be impaired on the BVMT-R than the other BICAMS subtests, with 43.9% meeting criteria for impairment.
The individual BICAMS tasks were each able to accurately classify PWMS into either cognitively impaired or cognitively intact groups with a high degree of accuracy. The method used to define impairment based on results on the same BICAMS tasks is less than ideal, as the preference would be to define impairment on a larger battery of non-BICAMS tasks. Nonetheless, in the absence of such data and using the current methodology, findings were consistent with other studies  and . The SDMT demonstrated the highest sensitivity (97.5%) and specificity (88.2%), although both the CVLT-II and BVMT-R were also highly sensitive and specific. The SDMT has consistently been found to be a highly sensitive measure in MS and regularly out-performs the PASAT which is included as the only cognitive outcome measure in the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). Our ROC analyses yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 96.4%. Past studies have yielded similar results with the AUC for the SDMT being 92% and for the PASAT 90% , leading to the argument that the SDMT should replace the PASAT in the MSFC. Given the many problems with the PASAT  and the fact that patients find it so aversive , the inclusion of the more easily administered and palatable SDMT in the BICAMS is more than justified.
When evaluating test–retest reliability of cognitive tests, the goal is to obtain r values of at least 0.70 (considered acceptable) or 0.80 (considered good). In the current study, the only BICAMS measure to meet either of these criteria was the SDMT (r = 0.85). Although both the CVLT-II and the BVMT-R were highly significantly correlated, the values did not reach the level for which one should strive. The same was true for the control sample, with the SDMT being the only measure to attain acceptable reliability. Note that reliability in the current study was calculated over a period of approximately two weeks and that alternate test forms were used for each measure in order to reduce practice effects (thus the test–retest reliability also incorporates alternate-form reliability as well). The Persian study  yielded r values between 0.78 and 0.82 for the BICAMS measures. However, an alternate form of the SDMT was not employed at follow-up and the follow-up interval was shorter (i.e. 10.8 (3.78) days) than the current study (15.6 (2.0) days). The Czech and Irish studies  and  tested participants at only one time point. The Hungarian study  assessed test–retest reliability without administering alternate forms at follow-up (i.e. CVLT-II standard form and BVMT-R Form 1 were administered at each visit). In addition, participants received more practice on the SDMT because they completed both written and oral versions. Thus, although they demonstrated moderate to strong test–retest reliability, their decision to re-administer the same forms and to administer both written and oral SDMT contributed to heightened practice effects and likely inflated their r values. Although the finding of higher reliability when using the same forms of each test might then argue for using the same forms at re-test intervals in clinical practice, this would make interpretation of any changes in cognition more challenging as a result of practice. The Italian study also utilized the same forms at re-test (in a healthy control sample only), and like the current study, only the SDMT achieved an r value higher than 0.80 .
In the current study where alternate forms were employed, both the SDMT and the BVMT-R demonstrated practice effects with performance being higher at follow-up. This is important to consider when using BICAMS as a cognitive monitoring tool over time. Despite the use of alternate forms, PWMS are able to benefit from simple exposure to the test (i.e. they learn how to learn) regardless of the specific items administered. This may be related to diminished anxiety given familiarity with the testing environment as well as knowing what the parameters are for a particular test. Such effects would be even more pronounced if using the same forms in each test session given that in addition to “learning to learn” the patient would also be familiar with the actual test content as well. Thus, if improvement is noted between sessions during regular clinic monitoring of cognition, one cannot assume that cognition has actually improved. If scores decline over time then we can be more confident that this is indeed true decline. Similarly, if there is no change, this might also be suggestive of decline (given the lack of benefit from practice). In neuropsychological practice, these factors are regularly considered in the context of serial testing. As such, in promoting the BICAMS as a monitoring tool for those less familiar with these psychometric principles, it will be important that initial training on these measures (and their interpretation) includes discussion of these issues.
In this study, although ratings of subjective cognition differed between the MS and HC groups, objective cognitive findings on the BICAMS did not correlate with subjective reports of cognition in either the PWMS themselves, or their informants. The lack of correlation of objective and subjective cognition is a common finding in the literature  and . Typically, self forms of the MSNQ correlate more with depression, as was the case here, and informant forms correlate more with objective cognition . The latter was not observed in our sample and suggests that informant ratings were influenced by mood symptoms of the PWMS.
With regard to the ability of the BICAMS to predict vocational status, only the BVMT-R was able to do so after accounting for demographics, depression and disability status. This is in contrast to other work which has demonstrated that the SDMT is more likely to predict vocational outcome  or that none of the BICAMS tests alone but rather all tests in the battery together (using the one of three tests criterion) predicted employment status . Despite the differences between these studies, the common element is that some aspect of BICAMS performance is able to predict whether or not a PWMS will be employed or not. As such, this suggests that the BICAMS as a whole has demonstrated ecological validity. Which component of the BICAMS best predicts employment status seems to vary across cultures and may be a line of inquiry worth pursuing in the future.
With regard to the significance of these findings, on a local level, the current project has established the BICAMS as a valid tool for the identification of cognitive impairment in our Ottawa MS population. All tests demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, with the SDMT demonstrating the most robust findings. In addition, the SDMT demonstrated good test–retest reliability. While the two memory measures were perhaps less valid than would be considered optimal, they did attain statistical significance. The BICAMS was able to identify cognitive impairment at a rate that has already been established as typical even when employing more comprehensive test batteries. The BICAMS also demonstrates ecological validity given that one component (the BVMT-R) was able to predict employment status. As such, findings support the use of the BICAMS in Canadian clinics. Given the less than optimal reliability, clinic staff should receive some training by an expert in psychometric properties of measurement tools to ensure that interpretation of findings is accurate, particularly in the case of cognitive monitoring by serial testing. If the BICAMS is implemented in clinical practice it will allow health care professionals to identify cognitively impaired individuals and in turn, begin to target cognitive dysfunction in interventional studies using cognitive rehabilitation strategies. Research has demonstrated that such strategies positively influence quality of life. This could lead to improvements in clinical practice that would have a direct benefit to patients. Future directions should include the pursuit of a validation study in a Canadian Francophone population. Given the language dialect and cultural differences that exist between European French and Canadian French populations, there is likely a need for more than one French translation.
On a global level, establishing the reliability and validity of the BICAMS in a Canadian sample contributes to the international effort to find a psychometrically sound manner of screening for cognitive impairment in MS that can be used across cultures and languages. A common tool such as this will foster research collaboration worldwide. Having common data points to allow for large-scale studies internationally will help to increase statistical power with larger sample sizes and may prove as a useful clinical outcome measure in future clinical trials.
The authors would like to thank the people with MS and the healthy control participants who participated in this study. Their time and effort are much appreciated. The authors would also like to thank the University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Research Institute for generously funding this project. Lastly, thanks goes to Dr. Dawn Langdon for her advice and support during the course of this study.
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a University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Research Institute, Canada
b The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Canada
c University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Canada
d University of Ottawa, School of Psychology, Canada
e Carleton University, Department of Psychology, Canada
f Carleton University, Institute of Cognitive Science, Canada
g St. Paul University, Canada
⁎ Corresponding author at: The Ottawa Hospital, 501 Smyth Road, Suite 7300, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada.
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